top of page
Field Work - Sterilization

Deer Management

White Buffalo Inc. is the leading expert in population control of white-tailed deer.
We work in highly sensitive areas such as suburban communities and city parks. 

White Buffalo Inc. has extensive first-hand data and the most up to date information that will allow you to make an informed decision regarding the selection of a deer management program that will meet your needs.  When regulated hunting is not an option, nontraditional methods, such as the ones below, can be implemented to address overabundant deer populations.




Fertility Control

Fertility control is widely perceived to be the ideal solution. However, agents are currently not widely available for managing overabundant deer populations. These agents remain strictly regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, and further research is required to assess the feasibility and practicality of using contraceptives. Fertility control agents do exist that can prevent reproduction in individual deer. However, the need for repeated administration and limited delivery technologies significantly restrict the population size that can be experimentally manipulated. Data collected to date shows costs ranging from ~$500 - $1,500 per doe treated and includes the cost of manpower and materials. Likely the use of contraceptive agents will be limited to small, insular herds.


In most cases, we have determined that surgical sterilization of females can be more cost-effective over the long-term since each female only needs to be engaged once over their life span. This offers the potential for fertility control use in larger non-confined environments.


Download White Buffalo Inc.'s 1-sheet summary on surgical sterilization as a deer management technique and the research we are conducting.



Approved by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) as a humane form of euthanasia, sharpshooting to manage deer populations that are overabundant requires trained personnel to use a variety of techniques to maximize safety, discretion and efficiency. This method is often implemented in suburban and urban settings with access to both public and private lands. Costs can range from $200 to $400 per deer for sharpshooting and processing is an additional $70-$125 per deer. Typically all meat harvested is donated to area food shelters for distribution.

View White Buffalo Inc.'s Sharpshooting Protocol.


Managed Hunts 

As an expansion of legally regulated hunting methods, managed hunts can be successful. Using vetted and trained hunters to manage deer populations that are overabundant may require state agency and law enforcement involvement to assist with a variety of issues. Costs range from $100 to $200 per deer harvested depending on the manpower required. Archery is a discreet removal technique, however, lower success rates because of limited shooting ranges may require a longer time frame of operation. Firearms, when feasible, can be used to maximize the efficiency (number of deer harvested/program duration).  We are presently evaluating the relative increase in harvest potential through the professional training of hunt participants.  We strongly believe that hunters can significantly improve their ability to humanely harvest more deer in developed environments with additional knowledge that has been accrued through decades of professional deer management projects.





bottom of page