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Bhutan | White Buffalo Inc. conducted Training and Wildlife Management efforts in Bhutan

White Buffalo Inc. is dedicated to the conservation of native species and ecosystems.

City of Fairfax: A Surgical Sterilization Project in Virginia


Fairfax City needed a solution to address landowner concerns about deer conflicts. They had considered archery hunting, but for a variety of reasons, the City Council voted against it. Local animal advocates from Humane Deer Management, Pets Limited and Wildlife Rescue Inc., stepped in and arranged a meeting with White Buffalo Inc. and the city administration. After much discussion, the City Council voted to permit our team to conduct sterilization research in the City of Fairfax, VA. We felt like it was an ideal project, the deer densities weren't too high, and it was a good model for stabilizing an existing herd. Over the last five years, we have developed a field method for deer sterilization and are evaluating the local population impacts in several suburban areas, so it was great to have a new community to bring into the study.


After two decades of research on immunocontraceptive vaccines, it has become apparent that it is very costly to treat animals on multiple occasions. At best, birth control vaccines need to be administered at least two times in an animal's life. Each capture costs more as the animals become increasingly savvy. The sterilization technique adds approximately 25% to the total cost of the initial capture, and an animal only needs to be handled once. This technique reduces overall program cost for a community and reduces stress on the animal by eliminating the need for recapture. While this solution may not be right for every community and situation, it is a method that has promise in a variety of areas and can be combined with other management approaches.


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Training Courses

White Buffalo Inc. offers a variety of courses ranging from sterilization training and remote immobilization to capture and sharpshooting. We are developing a series of professional training courses. Sign up for our email newsletter and we will notify you of the schedule.


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Our Mission


White Buffalo Inc. is a 501(c)(3) organization that was established in 1996 and is dedicated to the conservation of native species and ecosystems. Our approach is unique, in that we generate funding for conservation research and education through our services -- wildlife management alternatives in non-traditional settings.


What We Do >>

Deer Management Solutions


We have unparalleled experience across a variety of deer management techniques.  White Buffalo Inc. and Dr. Anthony DeNicola can advise you on the best solution for your deer management concerns. We can help assess your situation, collaborate on potential solutions, and bring our expertise to bear to help ensure an optimal outcome.

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Lana’i: A comparison of sUAS (drone), camera trap, and helicopter ungulate population estimates in Hawaii


With the assistance of a grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, we are partnering with Island Conservation and Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) to estimate axis deer and mouflon sheep density and distribution, and develop a monitoring program in the Kuahiwi a Kai program area on Lana’i, Hawaii. The main activities to accomplish these goals include 1) estimating distribution and density of ungulates using modern sUAS (drone) with infrared sensors and trail-camera technology that can be extrapolated to the rest of Lana'i, 2) comparing these efforts with DOFAW’s helicopter population estimate, and 3) developing a repeatable monitoring program for assessments in future years by Pūlama Lana’i resource managers.


More on drone surveys>>

Quick Links: Our Background


Review our current business portfolio and the breadth of peer-reviewed publications supported by our work.  We offer our services and support ongoing research to advance the wildlife discipline. Dr. DeNicola's resume and his background are extensive in this arena.


Here's a good primer on deer management from Dr. DeNicola: "Managing White-Tailed Deer in Suburban Environments."


Webinar on "Deer population demographic impacts of intensive surgical sterilization treatment"

This webinar, which was originally presented on Tuesday, November 17, 2020, features Dr. Anthony DeNicola, CEO of White Buffalo, Inc., presenting data on his six surgical sterilization sites with open populations in California, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Virginia, and New York.  

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Deer Management Presentation in Fairfax, VA

Discussion of the grant proposal for a non-lethal Deer Management Program, by Dr. Anthony DeNicola, CEO of White Buffalo Inc.


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Deer Management, Deer Fertility Control

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